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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 503 •desire of the departed that his sepulchre should not be violated. The Phrygian tombs were conceived to be temples and the dead to have either returned to God or to have became themselves deified. There is a notable absence however from the inscriptions of statements con- cerning the nature of the future life. The volume contains a map of S. W. Phrygia, but none of Phrygia as a whole. The index is doubtless to appear at the close of the whole work, but one for the separate volume also would be an aid to future students. George T. Purves. Otto Waser. Skylla unci Charybdis in der Literatur unci Kunst der Griechm und Riimer. 1894, 8vo., pp. 147. F. Schulthess, Zurich. The author of this monograph has collected with great care and patience the available information concerning Skylla and Charybdis. As Skylla is by far the more interesting person — for Charybdis hardly arrives at the dignity of personality at all — the greater part of the book is devoted to her. The name Skylla, as also Charybdis, is derived from a " Semitic " source, i. e., from the Phoenicians, who were the teachers of the Greeks concerning the sea and its dangers. They sailed about Sicily and gave the names of Skylla and Charybdis to the dangerous points of the straits of Messina. So far Waser accepts the conclusions of other scholars, adding no new facts in defence of those conclusions. In her essence, Skylla is the personification of the sea and its dangers. This is shown by her genealogy. In the Odyssey, xu, 124, her mother is called Kpnrau's, but this is a mere epithet of Hekate (Ap. Rhod. iv. 828 f.). Other genealogies are discussed, but the conclusion is reached that Hekate-Krataiis and Phorkys were the real parents of Skylla. Her relations to Hekate, Gorgo, and Glau- kos are discussed at length, showing how she is at once a personifica- tion of the sea and a demon of death. Nearly all the so-called representations of Glaukos with Skylla are doubted or rejected. In some cases not Glaukos but Triton is represented. That the Skylla of Megara is confused with the terrible demon Skylla by late poets is mentioned, and the discussion of Skylla and Charybdis in literature closes with a series of notes or remarks on the passages in classical and patristic literature in which they are referred to. In the course of his discussion of Skylla and Charybdis in art, Waser comes to the satisfactory conclusion that Charybdis does not appear in art at all. Skylla, on the other hand, is represented many times and in different ways. Most frequently she has the head and trunk of a young woman, from about her waist spring the bodies, forelegs, and heads of beasts, and she ends in a fish's tail, or later in two such 504 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. tails. The number of beasts varies from two to eight, and their char- acter is not always the same. Sometimes they partake of lupine or equine nature, but they are usually dogs, either two or three in num- ber. Nearly or quite all Etruscan figures which have been called Skylla are found to represent no person of Greek mythology, but an Etruscan demon. An enumeration of coin types and gems represent- ing Skylla is followed by a brief treatment of paintings and a discus- sion of fragments of a group of statuary. Parts of several replicas of this group exist. In addition to those mentioned by Farnell in the Joum. of Hell. Stud., 1891, p. 54 ff. (who gives references to earlier literature), fragments in the basement of the British Museum are dis- cussed (cf. Arch. Anz., 1866, p. 203). The group represented Skylla girt with sea-dogs brandishing in her right hand an oar, while her left seized a bearded man by the hair. Each of the dogs had seized one of the companions of Odysseus whose ship was indicated by a prow at the right of the group. The group existed in a bronze copy in the hippodrome at Constantinople if epigrams in the anthology can be trusted, but other replicas were numerous, for Themistios (71-cpi 4><A('as, p. 279 Dind.) speaks of seeing the statue of Skylla in many places. In this group Skylla did not end in fishy tails, but her lower parts appeared to be hidden in sea weed. In style the group was related to the Pergamene reliefs and the Laocoon group. An inscription found in Bargylia in Caria together with the fragments of the Skylla group in the British Museum bears the name of M«Aas 'Eppaio-Kov, and a Melas is known from an inscription in Thebes (Loewy, Inschr. gr. Bildh. No. 148) dated between 371 and 240 b. c. As this Melas was not aTheban, Waser suggests that he may have been identical with the Melas of the Bargylia inscription, and perhaps the Skylla group was his work. But all that can be said about the style of the group points so strongly to the second century b. c, that this identification is highly improb- able. The monograph closes with a catalogue of representations of Skylla. Thirty vases, one lamp, twelve other reliefs, three figures in the round (one repeated three times on a tripod), and one mosaic are described. From this catalogue all representations discussed in the body of the work are excluded. This is unfortunate, as a complete catalogue would be convenient. The monograph can be recommended as a careful and, apparently at least, complete collection of material,, in the discussion of which the author shows both learning and good sense. Not much that is new is offered, nor is there much originality of speculation, but the subject is more exhaustively treated here than anywhere else, so far as I know, and the conclusions reached are in almost every instance perfectly sound. Harold N. Fowler.